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Robert Elsie

Texts and Documents of Albanian History

 

1000 — 1799

1800 — 1899

1900 — 1919

1920 — 1944

1945 —


Webdesign J. Groß

Albanian History
1900 — 1919

1901
Alexandre Degrand:
A Visit to Tirana

The French consul in Shkodra, Alexandre Degrand, describes his visit to Tirana around 1898.

 

1903
Henry N. Brailsford:
Macedonia: its races and their future - the Albanians

Chapter on the Albanians from British journalist Henry Noel Brailsford’s seminal book on the peoples of Macedonia.

 

1904
Karl Steinmetz:
Expedition into the Northern Albanian Mountains

The Austro-Hungarian explorer and travel writer, Karl Steinmetz, ventured into the remote valley of Theth, but a dispute between the native tribesmen forced him to change his travel plans.

 

1907
Mihal Grameno:
The Albanian Uprising

Albanian rebels slay the Turkish commander of Gjirokastra.

 

1907
Marko Miljanov:
The Life and Customs of the Albanians

Excerpts from the book Život i običaji Arbanasa (The Life and Customs of the Albanians), Belgrade 1907, written by the old Montenegrin warrior, Marko Miljanov (1833-1901), known in Albanian as Mark Milani.

 

1907
Lovro Mihačević:
Journey through Kosovo and to Shkodra

A Croatian priest travels through Kosovo in the final years of Ottoman rule.

 

1907
Theodor Ippen:
The Bazaar of Shkodra

Description of the old bazaar of Shkodra a century ago, before its destruction.

 

1907
Baron Franz Nopcsa:
Murder Statistics in Northern Albania

A study by Hungarian scholar Baron Nopcsa on the influence of blood feuding in northern Albania upon the mortality rates among men from the various tribes.

 

1907
Baron Franz Nopcsa:
The Baron Held Hostage in the Mountains of Dibra

On a journey through Mirdita and Dibra in 1907, the Austro-Hungarian scholar, Baron Nopcsa, was taken prisoner and held for hostage by the notorious bandit Mustafa Lita.

 

1907
Franz Baron Nopcsa:
Der Baron in den Bergen von Dibra als Geisel gefangen

Auf einer Reise durch Mirdita und Dibra im Jahre 1907 wurde der österreichisch-ungarische Forscher Nopcsa durch den berüchtigten Räuber Mustafa Lita als Geisel gefangen genommen.

 

1908
Alexandre Baschmakoff:
A Perilous Journey through the Northern Albania
and Down the Rugova Canyon

Tale of a journey through Kelmendi, Gucia and the Rugova highlands, as narrated by an intrepid Russian traveller in 1908.

 

1908
Ekrem bey Vlora:
An Excursion to Berat

An Albanian nobleman records his impressions of a visit to Berat in 1908.

 

1909
Gabriel Louis-Jaray:
Travels through Kosovo and Northern Albania

A French traveller reports on his journey through Kosovo and northern Albania (Mitrovica, Peja, Gjakova, Prizren and Kukës) in the summer of 1909.

 

1909
Edith Durham:
In the Debatable Lands

Edith Durham gives an account of her tour through the northern Albanian mountains to pay a surreptitious and illegal visit to Kosovo under Ottoman rule.

 

1910
Paul Siebertz:
Albanian Women

German journalist and author Paul Siebertz devotes this chapter of his book on Albania to the lot of women in northern Albania.

 

1912
Sir Robert Graves:
On an Ottoman Mission
to the No Man's Land of European Turkey

A British diplomat in Ottoman service takes part in a government mission to Kosovo and Albania in the last months of Ottoman rule in the Balkans.

 

1912
The Declaration of Albanian Independence

The events leading up to the Declaration of Albanian Independence and the text of the Declaration itself are given here as published in a Vlora newspaper at the time.

 

1912
Maria Amelie, Baroness von Godin:
The Declaration of Albanian Independence

A German baroness describes the declaration of Albanian independence that she witnessed in 1912, and for which she came up with a flag.

 

1912
Ekrem bey Vlora:
Impressions from Vlora at the Time of Albanian Independence

Impressions of the Albanian aristocrat, Ekrem bey Vlora, from the time of Albanian independence in 1912.

 

1912
Aubrey Herbert:
A Meeting with Isa Boletini

British public figure, diplomat and writer, Aubrey Herbert, recounts his encounter with Kosovo freedom-fighter Isa Boletini in August 1912, whom he describes as the Robin Hood of Albania.

 

1912
Leo Trotsky:
Behind the Curtains of the Balkan Wars

As a young journalist, Russian revolutionary Leo Trotsky experienced at first hand the Serbian invasion of Kosovo and Macedonia in October 1912 and described it in all its horror in a report back to a Ukrainian newspaper.

 

1912
Leo Trotzki:
Hinter einem Zipfel des Vorhangs

Als junger Journalist erlebte der russische Revolutionär Leo Trotzki den serbischen Einfall in Kosovo und Makedonien im Oktober 1912 und berichtete in einer Kiewer Zeitung schonungslos darüber.

 

1912
Milan von Šufflay:
Mediaeval Albania

Croatian historian Milan von Šufflay published this article in the Viennese press in November 1912 to counter Serbian claims to Albanian territory.

 

1912
The New York Times:
A Trail of Blood

A report that appeared in ‘The New York Times’ on 31 December 1912 on the Serbian invasion of Kosovo.

 

1913
Jovan Tomić:
The Kelmendi on the Peshter Plateau (1700-1711)

In the early eighteenth century, the northern Albanian Kelmendi tribe were exiled by force to the desolate Peshter Plateau, now in Serbia. And they want to go home.

 

1913
Frankfurter Zeitung:
The Balkan War

A front-page newspaper editorial in Germany denounces Serbia's extermination policies of the Kosovo Albanians during the First Balkan War in 1913.

 

1913
Egon Erwin Kisch:
The Shelling of Shkodra and the Burning Down of the Bazaar

A German journalist visits Shkodra just after the Montenegrin assault of April 1913.

 

1913
Egon Erwin Kisch:
Bombardement und Basarbrand von Skutari

Der deutsche Journalist Egon Erwin Kisch besucht Skutari kurz nach der montenegrinischen Eroberung im Frühjahr 1913.

 

1913
Bruno Thomas:
The Current Situation in Albania

An Austrian lieutenant reports back to the Military Chancery of Crown Prince Franz Ferdinand in Vienna on the situation in newly independent Albania, as he experienced it.

 

1913
Leo Freundlich:
Albania's Golgotha ...

The full text of Austrian publicist Leo Freundlich’s moving book on the Serbian invasion of Kosovo in late 1912.

 

1913
Leo Freundlich:
Albaniens Golgatha ...

Buch in vollem Wortlaut des österreichischen Publizisten Leo Freundlich über den serbischen Einmarsch in Kosovo im Oktober 1912.

 

1913
The Conference of London

The Great Powers gathered in London in 1913 and, among many other things, came to the following eleven-point decision that provided a basis of the international recognition of Albanian independence.

 

1913
Dole in Dibra:
Official Report ...

This report, published in December 1913, detailed the carnage caused by the Serbian invasion of the Dibra and Luma region along the present Albanian-Macedonian border.

 

1913
Consul von Heimroth:
Report on the Situation in Skopje and Kosova ...

Correspondence from the Austro-Hungarian consul in Skopje on the chilling situation there and in Kosova (Kosovo) following the Serbian invasion.

 

1913
Archbishop Lazër Mjeda:
Report on the Serb Invasion of Kosova and Macedonia

Lazër Mjeda was the Catholic archbishop of Skopje from 1901-1921. He reports to the Vatican here on the carnage caused by the Serbian invasion of Kosova (Kosovo) and Macedonia in the autumn of 1912.

 

1913
Wadham Peacock:
The Wild Albanian

An overview of Albanian history published in ‘The Fortnightly Review’ by British diplomatic figure Wadham Peacock.

 

1913
Baron Franz Nopcsa:
The Congress of Trieste

The Congress of Trieste of early March 1913 was an important gathering of Albanian leaders from Albania and abroad to support Albania’s declaration of independence. Hungarian scholar, Baron Nopcsa, who took part in the proceedings, describes what actually took place.

 

1913
Franz Baron Nopcsa:
Der Albaner-Kongress von Triest

Bei dem Kongress von Triest im März 1913 handelte es sich um eine bedeutende Versammlung albanischer Führer vom In- und Ausland, um Solidarität zu bekunden und um die Lage in dem neu unabhängig geworden Land zu erörtern. Der ungarische Gelehrte, Franz Baron Nopcsa, der daran teilnahm, beschreibt, was dort tatsächlich geschah.

 

1914
E. J. Dillon:
The Albanian Tangle

The Anglo-Irish journalist E. J. Dillon was in Durrës, staying in the villa of the ambitious Essad Pasha Toptani, at the time of the dramatic events of 1914 that led to the collapse of the short reign of Prince Wilhelm zu Wied as sovereign of the newly independent Albanian State. In this article, he offers opinions and first-hand views of what he observed.

 

1914
Austro-Hungarian Vice-Consul Kohlruss:
The Situation in Prizren

An Austro-Hungarian official reports on the situation in Prizren one year after the Serbian conquest of Kosovo.

 

1914
k. u. k. Vizekonsul Kohlruss:
Die Lage in Prizren

Ein Jahr nach der serbischen Eroberung von Kosovo berichtet der österreichische Vizekonsul über die Lage in Prizren.

 

1914
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace:
Report on the Serbian Invasion of Kosovo
during the First Balkan War

Short report of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace concerning the Serbian invasion of Kosovo during the First Balkan War, 1912.

 

1914
Bajazid Elmaz Doda:
The Shepherds of Upper Reka (Macedonia)

Every winter, the Albanian shepherds of Upper Reka migrated with their flocks down to the Mediterranean coast.

 

1914
Bajazid Elmaz Doda:
Wanderungen der Schafhirten
des Oberen Rekatales (Makedonien)

Jeden Winter wanderten die albanischen Schafhirten des Oberen Rekatales mit ihren Tieren zur Winterweide runter bis an die Mittelmeerküste.

 

1914
British Foreign Office report:
Vlora in the Summer of 1914

Letter from Edith Durham on the chaotic situation in Vlora on the eve of the Greek invasion.

 

1914
Dimitrije Tucović:
Serbien und Albanien: ein kritischer Beitrag ...

Buch im vollem Wortlaut des serbischen Sozialdemokraten Dimitrije Tucović, in dem er sich aus sozialistischer Sicht u.a. mit der serbischen Eroberung von Kosovo kritisch auseinandersetzt.

 

1914
Duncan Heaton-Armstrong:
An Uprising in the Six-Month Kingdom

Irish Captain Duncan Heaton-Armstrong was the private secretary of Prince Wilhelm zu Wied, Albania’s monarch for a brief six months in 1914. He witnessed the Muslim uprising against the prince in central Albania at first hand.

 

1914
Christo Dako:
Terrible Greek Atrocities in the District of Kortcha

Albanian journalist Christo Anastas Dako informs Aubrey Herbert in London about the atrocities committed by Greek troops in southern Albania in early 1914.

 

1915
Norman Douglas:
The Albanians of Old Calabria

British travel writer Norman Douglas presents the Albanian minority in the mountains of southern Italy in his book ‘Old Calabria.’

 

1915
Mid’hat bey Frashëri:
The Epirus Question - the Martyrdom of a People

Political figure Mid’hat bey Frashëri denounces the destruction of much of southern Albania by Greek military and paramilitary forces in 1913-1914.

 

1916
Leo Freundlich:
Die Albanische Korrespondenz (1916-1918)

Agenturmeldungen der "Albanischen Korrespondenz" aus den Jahren 1916 bis 1918.

 

1916
Konstantin Jireček:
Scutari and the Surrounding Region in the Middle Ages

A Czech historian presents an inventory of the major early settlements of the Shkodra (Scutari) region in the Middle Ages.

 

1916
Theodor Ippen:
Nineteenth-Century Albanian History

An overview of Albanian history in the early decades of the 19th century, by Austrian scholar and diplomat Theodor Ippen.

 

1917
Wilhelm zu Wied:
Memorandum on Albania

Extract from the memorandum of Wilhelm zu Wied, who was Albania’s monarch for a short six months in 1914, in which he recounts the history of his accession to the throne and the factors that led to his downfall.

 

1917
Leo Freundlich:
An Albanian Delegation Pays Homage ...

Austrian publicist Leo Freundlich describes the visit of a large delegation of Albanian leaders to Vienna in April 1917.

 

1917
Leo Freundlich:
Eine albanische Huldigungsdeputation in Wien

Der österreichische Publizist Leo Freundlich beschreibt die Ankunft einer großen Delegation albanischer Führer in Wien, um dem neuen Kaiser zu huldigen.

 

1918
G. F. Phillips:
Memorandum on the Situation in Albania

Brigade General G. F. Phillips, head of the British Military Mission in Albania in late December 1918, describes the situation in the country.

 

1918
Fan Noli et al.:
Memorandum on Albania

A memorandum sent to U.S. President Wilson and European leaders at the start of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 to plead for continued recognition of Albania as a sovereign state.

 

1918
Mehmet bey Konitza:
The Albanian Question

An overview of Albanian history and an appeal for a just solution to the Albanian question, by Mehmet Bey Konitza, who was foreign minister in 1914 and 1920 and Albanian envoy to London in 1922.

 

1919
Statistics of the Rugova Massacre

Statistics of a massacre in the Rugova Highlands in Kosovo in February 1919.

 

1919
Essad Pasha Toptani:
Memorandum on Albania

A memorandum written by Essad Pasha, in exile in London, to persuade the Paris Peace Conference that he was the sole legitimate rule of Albania.

 

The translations in this anthology may be copied, downloaded and used for non-commercial purposes if the source is appropriately documented. | Robert Elsie

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